Overzicht

FAQ

All questions

  • Difference between a Directive, a Regulation, a decision, ....

    European Directive

    A binding text that obliges each Member State to obtain a certain result within a certain period. The directive contains "essential requirements". A directive must be converted into national law, where the national authoroties can choose the form and means.

    European Regulation

    A binding text which is directly applicable in all Member States.

    European Decision

    A binding text for those to whom she has been aimed explicitly; vb. a Member State, a EU citizen, or a certain group EU citizens

    European Resolution

    A non-binding communication of the Council or the European Parliament

    Royal Decree

    A binding text at Belgian level

    Standard

    A standard describes by means of technical data how something must be carried out. There exist international standards (ISO), European standards (EC) and national standards (NBN, DIN, B, NF etc.). The compliance with standards in itself is legally not enforcable. It is however possible that enforcable legislation refers, such as a law or a Royal Decree, to specific standards. In that case these standards get a more enforcable character, which they borrow then from the legislation which refers to these standards

    European harmonised standard

    A standard which lies in line of the essential requirements of the concerning directive

    CR (committee report)

    A technical report of CEN that it is not published officially as a standard

  • Functions of packaging

    In the debate on packaging the essential functions of a packaging are frequently overlooked, and for this reason it is usefull to quote them:

    Preservation

    Packaging allows to keep the products as long as necessary with conservation of quality.

    Hygiene

    A good packaging is the best guarantee for good hygiene.

    Diversification

    The diversification of the packaging allows to adapt the product to the preference, the habits and use patterns of the consumer.

    Portionering

    Packaging allow to adapt the quantity of the product to the need of the consumer.

    Transport

    A good packaging ensures that the product can be transported from the place of production to the place of processing or consumption without damage and/or quality reduction.

    Stapeling

    Packaging must make it possible to pill up the products without damage on the place of production, during the transport, in rise spaces and on the place of processing or sale.

    Information

    The packaging is the bests place for the identification of the product (mark), the instructions for use, all legal indications (price, weight, etc.), mastering instruments (barcode, etc..) and all other desirable environmental information (material identification, recyclability, etc.).

    Mark and publicity

    The packaging carries the mark which allows to recognise the products more easily. Also the packaging allows to communicate with the consumer for the support for the publicity

    Other

    Additional demands which can be made to some packaging:
    - burglar system
    - security
    - gebruiksvriendelijkheid
    - machinability/process ability

    Source: "Durf uw verpakkingen in vraag stellen" edited by PRO vzw

  • Identification codes and recycling symbols on packaging

    Identification codes

    At European level the Directive 1994/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste obliges to obtain certain quotes for recycling and valorisation.
    In this directive a provision is also made concerning a marking and identification system. In elaboration of this provision decision 1997/129/EC of the european commission appeared regarding the identification system for packaging.
    In this decision each packaging material is granted with a code and an abreviation, in order to allow an identification of the packaging materials with a view to facilitate the collection, reuse, recovery including recyucling. At present this is still a voluntary system.

    Material Abreviation Code
    Polyethylene terephtalate PET 1
    High density polyethylene HDPE 2
    Polyvinyl chloride PVC 3
    Low density polyethylene LDPE 4
    Polypropylene PP 5
    Polystyrene PS 6

    Numbers 7 till 19 are left open in order to allow new developments and technologies to specify new plastics.

    Material Abreviation Code
    Corrugated fibreboard PAP 20
    Non-corrugated fibreboard PAP 21
    Paper PAP 22

    Numbers 23 till 39 are left open in order to allow new developments and technologies to specify new cardboard types.

    Material Abreviation Code
    Steel FE 40
    Aluminium ALU 41

    Numbers 42 till 49 are left open in order to allow new developments and technologies to specify new metals.

    Material Abreviation Code
    Wood FOR 50
    Cork FOR 51

    Numbers 52 till 59 are left open in order to allow new developments and technologies to specify new types.

    Material Abreviation Code
    Coton TEX 60
    Jute TEX 61

    Numbers 62 till 69 are left open in order to allow new developments and technologies to specify new textile types.

    Material Abreviation Code
    Colourless glass GL 70
    Green glass GL 71
    Brown glass GL 72

    Numbers 73 till 79 are left open in order to allow new developments and technologies to specify new glass types.

    Composite Material Abreviation Code
    Paper & fibreboard/miscellaneous metals C/* 80
    Paper & fibreboard/plastic C/* 81
    Paper & fibreboard/aluminium C/* 82
    Paper & fibreboard/tinplate C/* 83
    Paper & fibreboard/plastic/aluminium C/* 84
    Paper & fibreboard/plastic/aluminium/tinplate C/* 85
         
    Plastic/aluminium C/* 90
    Plastic/tinplate C/* 91
    Plastic/miscellaneous metals C/* 92
         
    Glass/plastic C/* 95
    Glass/aluminium C/* 96
    Glass/tinplate C/* 97
    Glass/miscellaneous metals C/* 98

     (*) Abreviation: C/ plus abreviation of the predominant material.
    Numbers are left open in order to allow new developments and technologies to specify new composites.

    Symbols for "recycable":


    Plastics
    For plastics generally the mobiusloop (3 turning arrows) are combined with numbers/abreviations. This is originating from the DIN 6120 standard regardin the marking of plastic packaging in view of their recycling. This system is also promoted by the Society of Plastic Industries (SPI) in America.
    Example for LDPE

    Paper & fibreboard
    For fibreboard generally the mobiusloop (3 turning arrows) is used.

    Attention: All Member States have converted Directive 1994/62/EC in their own national legislation.
    In the frame of recycling a lot of organisations were created to this concern.
    In Germany there is for instance the organisation RESY who organise the valorisation of the paper and fibreboard packaging waste. If you affiliate to this organisation, you can use the resy-symbol (also the mobiusloop but combined with your affliation number to Resy) on your packages. http://www.resy.de/

    Metal
    In the case of aluminium the logo showed below is used to demonstrate his recycability. Inside the two arrows the chemical symbol for aluminium is mentionned (al) or more common (alu).

    For steel the European Union of Steel manufacturers, APEAL, has designed a logo to demonstrate the good recycablity of steel packages. The logo symbolises the unique attraction between a steel packages and a magnet, allowing this fraction to be separated easily from the other household waste.

    Glass
    The european glass industry promotes the use of the logo showed below in order to incite the consumers to depose their glass packages into the glass balls for rycling.

  • Meaning of the different UN marks for IBC

    Examples:

    Metal IBC made from steel, destinated for the transport of solids
     

    11A/Y/* **
    B/BVI/020125/5500/1500

     

       

    Flexible IBC, destinated for the transport of solids

    13H3/Z/* **
    B/IBE/020153/3600/1000

    * = month of production
    ** = year of production

    Every IBC die voor gebruik overeenkomstig onderhavige voor-schriften vervaardigd en bestemd is, moet voorzien zijn van een duurzaam en duidelijk leesbaar kenmerk, minimaal 12 mm in lettergrootte, dat als volgt is samengesteld :

    a) het symbool van de UN voor de verpakkingen: Indien het kenmerk op metalen IBC's wordt ingestampt of in reliëf wordt aangebracht mag dit symbool door de hoofdletters "UN" vervangen worden ;
    b) de code van het IBC-type : vb 11A - 13H3
    c) een hoofdletter die de verpakkingsgroep(en) aanduidt waarvoor het constructietype goedgekeurd werd:
                i) X verpakkingsgroepen I, II en III (uitsluitend IBC's voor vaste stoffen) ;
               ii) Y verpakkingsgroepen II en III ;
              iii) Z enkel verpakkingsgroep III
    d) de maand en het jaar (twee laatste cijfers) van de fabricage ;
    e) het symbool van de staat die de toekenning van het kenmerk heeft toegelaten, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van het kenteken voor auto's in het internationaal wegverkeer ;
    f) de naam of het merk van de fabrikant en een ander identificatiemerk van de IBC dat door de bevoegde overheid wordt vastgesteld ;
    g) de belasting in kg, waarmee de stapelproef is uitgevoerd. Op de IBC's die niet ontworpen zijn om gestapeld te worden moet het cijfer "0" worden aangebracht ;
    h) de maximaal toelaatbare bruto massa of - voor de soepele IBC's - de maximaal toelaatbare lading, in kg. De diverse elementen van het basiskenmerk moeten in de volgorde van bovenstaande alineas aangebracht worden.

  • Standardization regarding Packaging

    The BPI participates in different-work groups responsible for elaborating standards regarding packaging. For certain work groups the BPI even ensures the chairmanship, for other groups it delegates persons, within its members, based upon their expertise.
    Supplementary information on standardization:

    Within the European Committee of Standardization (CEN) the Technical Committee 261 (abbreviated TC 261) is responsible for all standardization activities related to packaging.
    The objectives of TC 261 are: drawing up of standards concerning the terminology, the dimensions, the capacity, the marking, the environment, the testing methods and the performance requirements regarding packaging and unit loads. It concerns the primary as well as the secondary and tertiary packaging, unit loads included.
    The packaging is examined regardless of the material it is made of, its shape or contents and regardless of the distribution system or transport mode used.
    All aspects concerning the environmental impact, recycling included, are also examined.

    TC 261 « Packaging » is divided into 2 Subcommittees (SC) which are each active in their domain namely :

    • SC 4 : Packaging and the environment
    • SC 5 : Primary and transport packaging

    Finally every Subcommittee is divided into Work-Groups (WG):

    TC 261/SC 4 :

    WG 1 : Terminology, symbols & criteria for LCA of packaging
    WG 2 : Degradability of packaging & Packaging materials
    WG 3 : Material recovery
    WG 4 : Energy recovery
    WG 6 : Prevention
    WG 7 : Reuse
    WG 8 : Heavy metals & other dangerous sSubstances

    TC 261/SC 5 :
    WG 1.2 : Marking
    WG 1.3 : Dimensional coordination
    WG 1.4 : Test method & test schedules
    WG 1.5 : Range of capacities
    WG 1.6 : Packaging of dangerous goods
    WG 2.1 : glass packaging
    WG 2.2 : Metal packaging
    WG 2.3 : Paper & paperboard packaging WG 2.4 : Drums
    WG 2.5 : Rigid plastic packages
    WG 2.6 : Packages made from flexible Material
    WG 2.7 : Child resistant packaging
    WG 3.1 : SLC (Small Load Carrier System)
    WG 3.3 : Tensional strapping & accessories WG 3.4 : Pallets
    WG 3.6 : Rigid plastic packaging
    WG 3.7 : Intermediate bulk containers
    WG 3.8 : Roll containers

    Standardization


    The BPI participates in different-work groups responsible for elaborating standards regarding packaging. For certain work groups the BPI even ensures the chairmanship, for other groups it delegates persons, within its members, based upon their expertise.
    Supplementary information on standardization:

    Within the European Committee of Standardization (CEN) the Technical Committee 261 (abbreviated TC 261) is responsible for all standardization activities related to packaging.
    The objectives of TC 261 are: drawing up of standards concerning the terminology, the dimensions, the capacity, the marking, the environment, the testing methods and the performance requirements regarding packaging and unit loads. It concerns the primary as well as the secondary and tertiary packaging, unit loads included.
    The packaging is examined regardless of the material it is made of, its shape or contents and regardless of the distribution system or transport mode used.
    All aspects concerning the environmental impact, recycling included, are also examined.

    TC 261 « Packaging » is divided into 2 Subcommittees (SC) which are each active in their domain namely :
    SC 4 : Packaging and the environment
    SC 5 : Primary and transport packaging
    Finally every Subcommittee is divided into Work-Groups (WG):
    TC 261/SC 4 :

    WG 1 : Terminology, symbols & criteria for LCA of packaging
    WG 2 : Degradability of packaging & Packaging materials
    WG 3 : Material recovery
    WG 4 : Energy recovery
    WG 6 : Prevention
    WG 7 : Reuse
    WG 8 : Heavy metals & other dangerous

    Substances TC 261/SC 5 :
    WG 1.2 : Marking
    WG 1.3 : Dimensional coordination
    WG 1.4 : Test method & test schedules
    WG 1.5 : Range of capacities
    WG 1.6 : Packaging of dangerous goods
    WG 2.1 : glass packaging
    WG 2.2 : Metal packaging
    WG 2.3 : Paper & paperboard packaging WG 2.4 : Drums
    WG 2.5 : Rigid plastic packages
    WG 2.6 : Packages made from flexible Material
    WG 2.7 : Child resistant packaging
    WG 3.1 : SLC (Small Load Carrier System)
    WG 3.3 : Tensional strapping & accessories WG 3.4 : Pallets
    WG 3.6 : Rigid plastic packaging
    WG 3.7 : Intermediate bulk containers
    WG 3.8 : Roll containers

    Within the International Standardization Organisation (ISO) the Technical Committee 122 (abbreviated TC 122) is responsible for all standardization activities related to packaging.